The first legal code, the Codex of your-Nammu, was developed in Mesopotamia around 2000 BC. The Code lists prohibited acts and the penalties associated with them. The law had the support of the powers that be and was enforced throughout the empire. The Ur-Nammu codex was remarkably modern with a mixture of physical and monetary punishments. Current laws are still based on the structure of the your-Nammu Code. Ethics to establish principles of GOOD and right behavior Ethics deals with the basic principles that serve as the basis for moral rules. Different principles lead to different rules. So it`s out of the way. We know that we must be moral, and that others should do the same, and without some sense of morality, it would be very difficult, if not impossible, for many people to live together. Let us now turn to the questions that deal with the rules of morality and all the rules that govern human behavior. First of all, some terms need to be clarified. Why do we need moral rules? Why, for example, do people need rules to keep their promises, tell the truth and private property? This answer should be pretty obvious. Without these rules, people would not be able to live among other people.
People couldn`t make plans, couldn`t leave their belongings everywhere they went. We don`t know who we trust and what we can expect from others. A civilized social life would not be possible. So the question is: why should people care about being moral? However, law and morality are not the same thing. On the one hand, the law is binary, which means that an act is legal or illegal. But morality is full of gray areas. For example, stealing bread is illegal for any reason, but most people are more sympathetic when made to feed hungry orphans than as a random act of theft. In addition, the law is enforced by state actors such as the police and courts, and penalties are provided for violators. Morality is not formally regulated, although there can certainly be social consequences for immoral acts. After all, the law is the same for all citizens, but morality depends on who you ask, because everyone has a different perspective and experience. Keep these similarities and differences in mind as we define exactly what legal and moral means. Things that are immoral (to many) but not illegal.
Ethics is a branch of philosophy that deals with right and wrong. It is a system of principles and rules of conduct that are recognized and accepted by a particular group or culture. Bioethics covers a wide range of possible topics, such as ethical standards and moral issues arising from the practice of medicine, ethical issues in neuroscience, the protection of research participants, privacy issues raised by genome sequencing, and research involving children. As society evolves and opinions change, so does what is considered moral. If you look back in history, there are many examples of laws that were clearly immoral by today`s standards. Among other things, the United States stole Native American land, enslaved blacks, and discriminated against homosexuals. As society becomes more informed and open, citizens demand that their laws reflect their new definition of what is moral. While not everyone agrees with the decisions, changing the laws is a big step toward changing general social views. The amendment to the law provides the company with the new definition of what is acceptable.
Law and morality interact with each other and often cause each other`s change. Ultimately, when laws are unjust or outdated, people must stand up and fight for what is right. A person is ethical if he or she is aware of the basic principles of moral behavior and acts in a manner consistent with those principles. If the person does not, it is unethical. This is only one of many mysteries about the relationship between the domains of legality and morality, but it indicates a significant source of conflict and confusion. I can say that I do not agree with the person who participated in the discussion on the clinical case and who said that laws are the end of the story. That`s not all. Illegal things but considered moral (for many)! For example, you have to obey a law that says, “Don`t kill,” because murder is wrong in the first place; Making it a law does not make it particularly morally reprehensible.
The law sets the rules that define a person`s rights and obligations. The law also provides penalties for those who break these rules. Laws are often amended to reflect the needs of society. In any society, laws often have a strong moral standard (Porter, 2001). Two of the most common types of potential lawsuits against health care providers for health care violations involve lack of informed consent and violation of the standard of care (Brock & Mastroianni, 2013). In a situation of moral uncertainty, the skilled person is not sure of the existence of an ethical problem, or recognizes that such a problem exists, but is aware of ethical principles. A moral dilemma can arise when the skilled person must choose between two or more morally correct principles, each leading to a different approach (Falcó-Pegueroles et al., 2013). Finally, moral suffering is felt when the professional recognizes ethical principles and knows what to do, but is prevented by something or someone from acting accordingly. Judith Wilkinson has described another type of ethical conflict, which she calls moral indignation, a type of ethical conflict in which the professional feels powerless in the face of an immoral act of others (Falcó-Pegueroles et al., 2013). For example, if the law says that you must hand over undocumented migrants to the authorities, then you would have a moral obligation to do so because it is the law. The mere fact that the law is the law creates this obligation, but we might agree that, in some cases, this obligation can be offset if we believe that the law itself is immoral, or if we believe that our other moral obligations outweigh our moral obligation to obey the law.
According to this view, we have only a moral obligation to obey laws that we believe to be primarily moral – good laws – and only because of their content and not just because they are laws. There are many actions that are immoral, but it should not be illegal. For example, it may be immoral to gossip about your friend`s private life, but most would agree that this type of gossip shouldn`t be banned. The fundamental distinction between legal and moral seems quite simple. Scenarios like this raise the question of whether we have a general moral obligation to obey laws simply because they are laws.