In 1963, the Presidential Commission on Voter Registration and Participation, in its report to President Johnson, encouraged lowering the voting age. Johnson proposed on May 29, 1968, an immediate national concession of the right to vote for 18-year-olds. [7] Historian Thomas H. Neale argues that the decision to lower the voting age followed a historical pattern similar to other extensions of the vote; With the escalation of the war in Vietnam, voters were mobilized and eventually a constitutional amendment was passed. [8] In 1970, Senator Ted Kennedy proposed amending the Voting Rights Act of 1965 to lower the voting age nationally. [11] On June 22, 1970, President Richard Nixon signed an extension of the Voting Rights Act of 1965, which required the voting age to be 18 in all federal, state, and local elections. [12] In his statement on signing the extension, Nixon said, “The drive to lower the voting age from 21 to 18 developed throughout the country in the 1960s, in part due to organized conscription during the Vietnam War. Conscription recruits young men between the ages of 18 and 21 into the armed forces, particularly in the United States. Army to serve or support military combat operations in Vietnam. [1] A common slogan of supporters of lowering the voting age was “old enough to fight, old enough to vote.” [2] Senator Harley Kilgore began campaigning for a lowering of the voting age in the 77th Congress in 1941.

[4] Despite the support of fellow senators, representatives, and First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt, Congress failed to pass a national amendment. However, the public interest in lowering the voting age has become a matter of interest at the local level. In 1943 and 1955, lawmakers in Georgia and Kentucky passed measures to lower the voting age to 18. [5] In Oregon v. 1970, Mitchell, the U.S. Supreme Court, was given the task of reviewing the constitutionality of the provision. Judge Hugo Black wrote the majority decision in the case, in which it was stated that Congress had no right to regulate the minimum age in state and local elections, but only in federal elections. Four judges, without blacks, believed that Congress had the right to win state and local elections, while four others (again without blacks) held that Congress did not have the right even for federal elections, and that under the Constitution, only states had the right to determine voter qualifications.

George M. Montross of Detroit sent the letter to House Judiciary Committee Chairman Emanuel Celler to express his outrage at the decision to lower the voting age from 21 to 18. He questioned the legitimacy of the action, saying the constitution had been violated “shamelessly and shamelessly” by those who had vowed to protect it. According to Oregon v. Mitchell, Bayh surveyed election officials in 47 states and found that registering about 10 million young people in a separate system for federal elections would cost about $20 million. [30] Bayh concluded that most states could not change their constitutions in time for the 1972 elections and ordered national measures to avoid “chaos and confusion” at the ballot box. [31] During the debate over the extension of the Voting Rights Act in 1970, Senator Ted Kennedy argued that the equality clause of the Fourteenth Amendment allowed Congress to pass national laws to lower the voting age. [17] In Katzenbach v.

Morgan (1966), the Supreme Court had ruled that if Congress applied the 14th Amendment by passing a law declaring that a certain type of state law discriminated against a particular class of people, the Supreme Court would leave the law in abeyance if judges could exercise “a basis” for congressional actions. [18] Last week, U.S. Rep. Grace Meng (D-NY) introduced a resolution proposing an amendment to the U.S. Constitution that would systematically lower the voting age to sixteen. On the 10th. In March 1971, the Senate voted by 94 votes to 0 to propose a constitutional amendment guaranteeing that the minimum voting age could not be higher than 18 years. [33] [34] On March 23, 1971, the House of Representatives voted 401 to 19 in favor of the proposed amendment. [35] Although newly minted young voters were expected to vote for Democratic challenger George McGovern, an opponent of the Vietnam War, Nixon was re-elected by an overwhelming majority in 1972, winning 49 states. In the following decades, the legacy of the 26th Amendment was mixed: after a turnout of 55.4% in 1972, youth turnout steadily declined, reaching 36% in the 1988 presidential election. Although Bill Clinton`s election picked up slightly in 1992, voter turnout among 18- to 24-year-olds lagged behind the turnout of older voters, and many lamented that younger Americans are squandering their chances of making changes. In Barack Obama`s 2008 presidential election, turnout was about 49 percent of 18-24 year olds, the second highest in history.

Those who advocated a lower voting age relied on a number of arguments to advance their cause, and science increasingly links rising support to a lower voting age to the role of young people in the civil rights and other movements for social and political change of the 1950s and 1960s. [9] [10] The increase in early school leaving rates and young people`s access to political information thanks to new technologies have also influenced a more positive view of their preparation for the most important right to citizenship. [9] During World War II, President Franklin D. Roosevelt lowered the minimum age for conscription to 18, at a time when the minimum voting age (as determined by each state) was historically 21. “Old enough to fight, old enough to vote” became a common slogan for a youth suffrage movement, and in 1943, Georgia became the first state to lower its voting age in national and local elections from 21 to 18. Despite my concerns about the constitutionality of this provision, I signed the bill. I have asked the Attorney General to cooperate fully to expedite a speedy judicial review of the constitutionality of the 18-year-old provision. [13] The decision meant that states could maintain the voting age of 21 in national and local elections, but were required to create separate voter lists so that voters between the ages of 18 and 21 could participate in federal elections. [22] James J. Kilpatrick, a political columnist, claimed that states had been “blackmailed” to ratify the Twenty-sixth Amendment.

[27] In his article, he argues that by passing the extension of the Voting Rights Act of 1970, Congress effectively forced states to ratify the amendment so that they would not be required to deal financially and bureaucratically with the maintenance of two voter rolls. George Gallup also mentions the cost of enrollment in his article, showing the percentages that are in favor or against change, and he draws particular attention to the lower support rates among adults aged 30 to 49 and over 50 (57% and 52%, respectively) compared to 18-20 and 21-29 (84% and 73%, respectively). [28] NyRA has just received additional voting-age support from the Young Democrats of America, the latest in a long line of organizations dedicated to the . The mood to lower the country`s voting age dates back to World War II. As U.S. participation in the war increased, President Roosevelt sought to increase the size of the country`s military and lower the age of conscription for young men from 21 to 18. Many were appalled by the idea that if young men could fight and die for their country, they would not be able to participate in its basic democratic process – elections. “Old enough to fight, old enough to vote” became a widely used slogan that eventually led to a proposed constitutional amendment to give 18-year-olds the right to vote. However, the proposal could not prevail politically. President Nixon contradicted Kennedy in a letter to the Speaker of the House of Representatives and minority and majority leaders in the House of Representatives, saying it was not a question of whether the voting age should be lowered, but how. In his own interpretation of Katzenbach, Nixon argued that it would be too far-fetched to include age as something discriminatory and expressed concern that the damages of a Supreme Court decision to strike down the Voting Rights Act could be catastrophic.

[19] In his 1954 State of the Union address, President Dwight D. Eisenhower became the first president to publicly advocate for a ban on age-related denial of voting rights for people 18 and older. [6] In the 1960s, Congress and state lawmakers came under increasing pressure to lower the minimum voting age from 21 to 18. This was largely due to the Vietnam War, in which many young men who were not allowed to vote were enlisted in the war and therefore had no way to influence the people who sent them to risk their lives. “Old enough to fight, old enough to vote” was a common slogan of supporters of lowering the voting age. The slogan has its roots in World War II, when President Franklin D. Roosevelt lowered the age of conscription to 18. Determined to circumvent inaction on the issue, congressional allies included an 18-year voting provision in a 1970 bill that expanded the Voting Rights Act. The Supreme Court subsequently ruled in Oregon v. Mitchell that Congress could not lower the voting age for national and local elections. Recognizing the confusion and costs that would result from maintaining separate voter lists and elections for federal and state competitions, Congress quickly proposed and the states ratified the Twenty-sixth Amendment.

Jennings Randolph, then a Democratic member of the West Virginia Congress, introduced federal legislation in 1942 to lower the voting age; It was the first of 11 times randolph, who was later elected to the Senate, introduced such a bill in Congress.